Anyone who has ever been asked to delay dinner for a few minutes so someone can get to the next level of a computer game knows how very compelling those games can be. Imagine teaching a class that engenders that kind of dedication. Apparently we can offer classes that capture the excitement and motivation of computer games, just by incorporating the rules of game design into our teaching practice.
It’s called “game-based learning” or “gamification” and in 2012, it was targeted by the NMC Horizon Report as one of the key trends in education. The report identifies why computer games are so appealing to players of all ages and genders. Players have “…the feeling of working towards a goal; the possibility of attaining spectacular successes; the ability to problem solve, collaborate with others and socialize…” (Johnson, Adams & Cummins, 2012, p. 18) As described, game-based learning aligns pretty closely with we have learned about the requirements of adult learners. Add digital literacy to the mix, and you have a strong focus on skills that will prepare our students for success.
What does this mean to an ESL classroom? Are English language teachers now required to add “games master” and “game designer” to their collection of instructional roles? To a certain extent, possibly – but it’s important to look at the needs of an individual class, and the individuals in the class, to determine how gamification would be of most benefit. Young, international students probably already play games on their own time. Because they may have grown up playing computer games, they may find the pace of face-to-face learning in a classroom environment slow and not supportive of the way they need to learn. Immigrant students, and older students may not have the digital native’s short attention spans or familiarity with computers, but they can still benefit from the principles of game-based learning.
In his TED talk on “How to Escape Education’s Death Valley”, Sir Ken Robinson likens the education our children are getting to doing “low-grade clerical work”. (Robinson, 2013) He’s talking about children specifically, but he is also referring to a passive learning experience, which can be detrimental to the education of children and adults alike.
In her article, “Gamification for ESL Teachers”, Deborah Healey describes gamification as, “…using game elements in non-game contexts to motivate and persuade.” (Healey, 2013) Healey notes that ESL teachers have long-used communicative activities (or games) in their practice, and asserts that studying the components that make computer-based games so compelling will serve to “…improve learner motivation, collaboration, and willingness to spend time practicing.” (Healey, 2013) Healey goes on to give some examples of what ESL teachers routinely do in the classroom and how they fit into gaming mechanics. For example, what a game designer might call, “Community Collaboration” is known as “group work” in an ESL classroom. “Points” are what we might call “grades”. The gaming element “Cascading Information Theory” is the component of curriculum design where the instructor starts with a measureable outcome and works backwards, breaking the information to be learned into manageable chunks. (Healey, 2013)
The trend towards gamification of curricula reflects an effort to make learning more meaningful to our students. Other trends echo this sentiment. For example, the move to portfolio-based language assessment gives students the opportunity to test their language proficiency in a holistic manner, and in many cases to have some choice in the tasks they select for their portfolio.
In the end, there’s no need for all of us to learn code and design our own games. Even the most technology-resistant can incorporate game mechanics and use some games that are already available on the internet. “Free Rice” is an example of a vocabulary game any student can play, in class or in their own time. Players correctly guess the definitions of words, and each correct answer puts ten grains of rice into a bowl. The rice is donated by the game provider. Students can compete with each other and themselves for higher level scores and the number of bowls of rice they donate. I’m going to use Free Rice levels as an accomplishment to be fulfilled in an assessment portfolio.
Someone who is not a teacher may think that these two important trends will lead to a more relaxing time for instructors. On the contrary, they just indicate a further move away from the teacher-centered classroom and towards a curriculum and teaching methodology that is more relevant to our students’ learning needs and preferences.
Healey, D. (2013). Gamification for EL Teachers. Tesol.org. Retrieved 28 November 2015, from http://www.tesol.org/connect/tesol-resource-center/search-details/teaching-tips/2013/11/19/gamification-for-el-teachers
Johnson, L., Adams, S., & Cummins, M. (2012). Game-Based Learning. The New Media Consortium. Retrieved 28 November 2015, from http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2012-horizon-report-HE.pdf
Robinson, K. (2013). How to escape education’s death valley. Ted.com. Retrieved 28 November 2015, from http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_how_to_escape_education_s_death_valley